Sunday, August 23, 2020

English 101 the family Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

English 101 the family - Essay Example As indicated by Malinowski, the family had satisfied the all inclusive need thus it is an all inclusive establishment. Malinowski was clear then with his view that each family must have a dad (Collier et al 1997). He expressed that: The human newborn child needs parental assurance for an any longer period than does the youthful of even the most noteworthy humanoid chimps. Thus, no culture could suffer in which the demonstration of generation, that is, mating, pregnancy, and labor, was not connected up with the reality the dad and mother need to take care of the youngsters for an extensive stretch, and thusly, get certain advantages from the consideration and inconvenience taken. Anthropologies anyway can't help contradicting Malinowski's view with respect to the need of the dad to characterize a family. They contended that the arrangement the essential social unit isn't really the family unit setting where father is required yet just the mother and the kids are the main ones that made it (Collier et al 1997). They supported their own view when they asserted that whether of not a mate become connected to the mother on some pretty much lasting premise is a variable issue. Then again, they are keeping up Malinowski's concept of that family as an all inclusive human establishment without the connection of the dad in the family (Collier et al 1997). In certain areas' viewpoints, anthropologis... Alternately, they are keeping up Malinowski's concept of that family as a general human organization without the connection of the dad in the family (Collier et al 1997). In certain areas' viewpoints, anthropologists' view is being supported more than Malinowski's. Neurophysiologists, for example, Diane Ackerman's, through her book A Natural History of Love (1994), concurred in a roundabout way to the bastard arrangement of the family. As per Ackerman little youngsters go crazy when isolated from their moms, yet not really when isolated from their dads. Ackerman's view depend on affection for the guardians' towards their posterity, as the last's response relies upon the type of adoration a parent has given. Ackerman expressed that mother's affection is outright, that even sequential executioners have moms who love them. On the opposite side, fathers will in general love restrictive, and progressively far off, along these lines this make kids have elite love towards the dad (Ackerman 1994). Caring adoration will in general rebuff and prize, set cutoff points, set expectations and anticipate dutifulness as expressed by Ackerman. She clarified that it is actually part of the child rearing that a posterity to be controlled by dictators, and obeying laws. Sara Ruddick, through her work Thinking about Fathers (1990), said that the possibility of men responsible for the family compromises the frameworks, for example, family game plans, political coalitions, intersex companionship, and hetero connections. In a women's activist's view, control in the family and vocation is the issue when men nearness comes into the image in a unit as they will in general stifle ladies' entitlement to purposely oversee family concerns (Ruddick 1990). Notwithstanding, Ruddick attempted to be balance by refering to that fathers are essential fixings both of youth and adequate of

Friday, August 21, 2020

The Awakening Essay -- essays research papers

Books, in contrast to films, have been around since the get-go. Generally, they are more significant than the motion pictures that are produced using these books. This is because of the way that a writer can pass on his/her message more clear and remember things for the book that can't be displayed in a film. Consequently, the peruser of the book is considerably more affected than the watcher of the film. In the novella, The Awakening, by Kate Chopin, there is substantially more proof of imagery just as more profound importance than in the film variant of the book, Grand Isle. Chopin passes on her representative messages through the principle character’s recently gained capacity to swim, through the flying creatures, through rest, and through pictures of the moon. 	Edna Pontellier, the primary character of the novel, battles all late spring at Grand Isle to figure out how to swim. She has been helped by numerous individuals however was in every case too reluctant to even think about swimming all alone. One Saturday night, subsequent to going to a night in the corridor, Edna swims out just because without anyone else into the enticing sea. Acknowledging how simple it is and because of her "excited fancy," (Chopin, 30) she coincidentally swims out far. At that point, "a snappy vision of death destroyed her spirit, and for a moment of time shocked and enfeebled her senses." (Chopin, 30) For the first opportunity she encounters demise. Those are the occasions portrayed fair and square. The film, then again, just shows Edna swimming out, battling a bit, and coming back to shore. What's more, the film doesn’t notice the quality and satisfaction Edna feels after this experience. She expresses that she "never was so depleted in [her] life. In any case, it isn’t unpleasant†¦it resembles a night in a dream." (Chopin, 31) 	At the finish of this story, Edna executes herself by swimming out into the sea. The film shows only that, excluding two critical images which are available in the novella. The first of these two images is the harmed winged creature that’s "beating the air above, reeling, vacillating, hovering incapacitated down, down to the water." (Chopin, 124) This flying creature represents Edna’s battle to turn into the ace her own life just as her inability to accomplish this objective. The other image is "the old dread [that] flared up for a moment, at that point sank again." (Chopin 124) This is a similar fear she feels when she swims out for the main t... .... Chopin relates Edna to the Sleeping Beauty who has awoken to another world with another view of her environmental factors. 	Symbols of the moon are another viewpoint that’s overlooked in the film. During Edna’s first performance swim, the creator depicts how the moon gave her the force and boldness to continue onward; it "conveyed to her energized fancy." (Chopin, 30) After the swim when Edna is conversing with Robert, "strips of moonlight," (Chopin, 32) are noticeable surrounding them. They represent the untamed emotions Edna has for Robert, her first genuine affection throughout everyday life. The evening glow causes her to feel "the first throbbings of desire." (Chopin, 32) 	Books, usually, are better than the motion pictures that are produced using them. This is because of the massive intensity of our minds. Perusers utilize their minds to occupy the space that exists between him/herself and the book with so much things as dreams, past encounters, and expectations. Consequently, there is significantly more profundity and representative delineations in the novella, The Awakening, by Kate Chopin, contrasted and the film variant, Grand Isle. Because of this, the impact on the peruser is significantly more strong than the impact on the watcher.

Tuesday, July 7, 2020

Suffering in Crime and Punishment - Literature Essay Samples

Fyodor Dostoevsky once stated, Nothing is more seductive for man than his freedom of conscience. But nothing is a greater cause of suffering (Eiermann). Existentialism insists that human life is understood in terms of ones unique experience. Thus, being nothing or accomplishing nothing in life suggests failure and is a source of suffering. A particular example is Dostoevskys Crime and Punishment, where a young Russian student, Raskolnikov, murders an old pawnbroker to prove his Extraordinary Man theory, which suggests that the extraordinary may transgress the law of ordinary or inferior men. Immediately following his crime, Rodya experiences severe illness and emotional conflicts as he confronts issues with his family, the Marmeladov family, and the police during his gradual steps to confession. The motif of the need of suffering is used throughout the novel to produce the books theme: great suffering leads to salvation and the expiation of mans sins. In Crime and Punishment, several characters undergo much pain and personal anguish, binding the apparent motif of suffering to the theme, and providing a strong unifying element throughout the story.Though many readers often conceive Raskolnikovs suffering as having a direct relationship with his guilt over his crime, the actual controlling idea behind his punishment is an indirect result of his dual personality and his obsession to prove his theory. He is best represented as being either cold, intellectual and isolated from society, or as being warm and compassionate. The murder is the result of his intellectual sides need to determine whether or not he fits his Extraordinary Man theory. It was this aspect of his personality that developed the crime and executed his plan, thus, forcing the humane side to suffer for his actions. It is important to note that Raskolnikov becomes ill and unconscious immediately following the murder, signifying his ability to suffer greatly as, The conviction that all his faculties, even memory, and the simplest power of reflection were failing him began to be an insufferable torture (Dostoevsky 81). This scene is also important to the development of Dostoevskys theme as Raskolnikovs theory requires the extraordinary man to suffer greatly. Earlier, Rodya had written an article about crime in which he expressed his belief that pain and suffering are inevitable for a large intelligence and a deep heart. The really great man must have sadness on earth (230). However, Raskolnikovs suffering is also due to his recognition of his failure to meet his theory as he eventually confesses and also comes close to confessing when his theory or intellect is insulted or questioned by Porfiry and Zamitov. This point of view is best described by Svidrigailov when he tells Dounia that Raskolnikov has suffered a great deal and is still suffering from the idea that he could make a theory, but was incapable of boldly overstepping the law, and so is not a genius. A nd thats humiliating for a young man of any pride (403). Though Rodya had grown much from through suffering and recognizing his error in his theory, his intellect still prevents him from admitting he committed a crime as he believes he had made a mistake in killing the old pawnbroker whom he continues to see as a louse.Additionally, this internal conflict between his two opposing personalities is a constant source of confusion and frustration for the main character. Throughout the novel, Raskolnikov will usually refer to his compassionate side first in a given situation and perform an act of kindness or generosity, but, immediately afterwards, he will regret his action. For example, Rodya gives the Marmeladovs the last of his money after seeing the familys poor living conditions, then shortly afterwards, on the stairs he changed his mind and would have gone back. `What a stupid thing Ive done, he thought to himself (23). The charitable side of him is a sign of self-submissive ness and weakness that displeases him greatly due to his expectations of his own theory.In addition, Dostoevsky uses other characters as redemptive figures in the novel. Raskolnikov sees Sonia as a Christ figure, suffering for all of humanity as she willingly prostitutes in order to support a family, even though her father, Marmeladov, spends the money to quench his alcoholism:He will come in that day and He will ask: Where is the daughter who gave herself for her cross, consumptive step-mother and for the little children of another? Where is the daughter who had pity upon the filthy drunkard, her earthly father, undismayed by his beastliness? And He will say, Come to Me.Thy sins which are many are forgiven thee, for thou has loved much .' (20)Because of the silent submissiveness in her suffering and her ability to love, Raskolnikov turns to her to confess and agrees to wear her cypress cross as symbol of my taking up the cross! as though I have not suffered much till now! rese mbling Jesus carrying of the cross as he suffered for mankind (450).Moreover, Porfiry Petrovitch is another redemptive figure, urging Rodya to confess while representing Raskolnikovs intellectual equivalent, I am convinced that you will decide to take your suffering For suffering, Rodion Romnavitch, is a great thing theres an idea in suffering' (397). Porfiry sees in Rodion a brilliant mind which he feels has the potential of being a great man after much rehabilitation; therefore, the police investigator does not arrest him immediately, letting Raskolnikov suffer longer and eventually realize his errors in his theory, thus, allowing him to become a useful member of society.Furthermore, salvation from great suffering is best captured in one of the books later scenes where Katerina Ivanovna dies after roaming the streets for days. She had lived a life of poverty while raising a family under a prostitutes minute income and an alcoholic husband. In Sonias arms she exclaims to the world What, the priest? I dont want him. I have no sins. God must forgive me without that. He knows I have suffered and if He wont forgive me, I dont care (423). Her dying words are a statement of the novels theme in which great suffering has resulted in the expiation of ones sins.Life is often filled with times of immense joy, but it is equally permeated with moments that mankind would prefer to forget. In Crime and Punishment, Dostoevsky fills the pages with the cries of men and women suffering from the pains of guilt, death, and daily tribulations. As several characters suffer greatly, the novel is unified as each of them find a sense of salvation from their pain. This theme, in which great suffering is often correlated to such redemption and salvation, is also prevalent in the stories of the Bible such as Job and Jesus Crucifixion. Through such literature, mankind has been able to live life without fear and in hopes of someday being forgiven.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

My Project Is About World War I - 1123 Words

My project is about World War I. There wasn’t a single event that caused World War I. The War happened because of several different events that took place in the years building up to 1914. The war was between two powers, the Central Powers and the Allied Powers. The Central Powers were Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. The Allied Powers were Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy and Japan (the Allied Powers.) Germany had surrendered on November 11, 1918, and all of the nations had agreed to stop fighting while the terms of peace were made. On June 28, 1919, Germany and the Allied Nations which included Britain, France, Italy and Russia signed the Treaty of Versailles, ending the war. The war lasted from August 1, 1914 to November 11,†¦show more content†¦During the war some Southern newspapers said that Abraham Lincoln had observed a test of the flamethrower weapon. The first recorded use of hand-held flamethrowers in combat was on February 26, 1915. In the war, if your weapon ran out of ammo or your weapon broke you would have to find one on the battlefield. The German army was the first to use chlorine gas at the battle of Ypres in 1915. Chlorine gas causes a burning feeling in your throat and chest pains. The problem with chlorine gas is that the weather must be right. If the wind is in the wrong direction it could end up killing your own troops rather than the enemy. Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. It was fired into the trenches in shells. It has no color and takes 12 hours to take effect. Those gases are the enemies worst nightmares. There is a game called Battlefield 1 that I play the game is based off of WW1. While playing something I saw a cool looking blimp in the air and I wanted to know about it. Apparently it’s called a Zeppelin. The Zeppelin, also known as a blimp, was an airship that was used during the early part of the war in bombing raids by the Germans. They carried machine guns and bombs. However, they were abandoned because they were easy to shoot out of the sky. I got this definition from google. Of course in WW1 they used tanks. Tanks were used for the first time in the First World War at the Battle of the Somme. They were developed to cope with the conditions on theShow MoreRelatedReflection On The Cold War1110 Words   |  5 PagesCold War Project Reflection - Humanities 10 After World War II, the Cold War was another significant event that occurred in the 20th century, which had an dominant effect on many aspects in the American society. The United States and the Soviet Nation fought as allies during Word War II against the Nazi army, however, the relationship between the two unions were intense due to their different political perspectives. Soon after WWII, tensions between the U.S. and the USSR escalated; being the twoRead MoreThe Asian African Conference Of 19551250 Words   |  5 Pagesoft-eulogized birth place of the Third World. Robert Vitalis has called Bandung â€Å"the imagined birthplace of not one but two global ‘solidarities.’† The first is nonalignment, and the second is â€Å"an emerging ‘global racial consciousness’.† While Vitalis disproves these connections, seeking to portray the reality of the Bandung Conference, this dissertation finds the aura of myth which surrounds Bandung to be a usefu l device. Prominent figures in the Third World Project as well as academics have seen fitRead MoreSimilarities Between The Lives Of Fred Heim And Walter Richard Becker Before And After The Second World War1685 Words   |  7 PagesSUMMARY My Research Project topic question is: What are the similarities and differences between the lives of Fred Heim and Walter Richard Becker before, during and after the Second World War. I chose this topic initially because of my family history through my grandfather’s family who were predominantly Jewish. 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The novel Nineteen Eighty-FourRead MoreEssay about If I Die in a Combat Zone by Tim OBrien996 Words   |  4 PagesOBrien, Tim. If I Die in a Combat Zone. New York: Broadway Books, 1975. Tim OBrien is confused about the Vietnam War. He is getting drafted into it, but is also protesting it. He gets to boot camp and finds it very difficult to know that he is going off to a country far away from home and fighting a war that he didnt believe was morally right. Before OBrien gets to Vietnam he visits a military Chaplin about his problem with the war. OBrien I am really surprised to hear this. YoureRead MoreJustified or Unjustified: America Builds the First Nuclear Weapon883 Words   |  4 PagesOn August 2, 1938, in the heat of World War II, Albert Einstein, a physicist born in Germany, sent a letter to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the 32nd president of the United States. The letter suggested America to build an atomic bomb before the Nazi Germany does. However, it took more than two months for the letter to reach Roosevelt. On October 19, 1938, Roosevelt agreed, replying, â€Å"I found this data of such import that I have convened a Board †¦ to thoroughly inves tigate the possibilities of yourRead MoreEssay On American History740 Words   |  3 PagesFuture As I peer out the bus window I am amazed by the sight. A large, oval shaped setup outlined with high cement pillars representing every state and territory who participated. As I get off the bus and get a closer look I notice wreaths stationed at both the Pacific and Atlantic sides, connecting everything in a form of celebration. In the center, water dances up into the sky and trickles back into the pool, ready to go again. Old Glory can be seen greeting me to this happy place. I walk aroundRead MoreQuestions On Global Studies : Spring Final Project1167 Words   |  5 Pagesspring final project we had to think of a thesis that used â€Å"Through my history and English courses, I have learned...† as a starting/expansion point. We were to write journals that responded to different open ended questions about the process of this project and about our experiences in this course. The main part of the project is the product which was a medium of our choice that exhibits a meaningful point of connection for you between history and English this year. My product for this project is a website

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Business Ethics Of Microsoft Corporation - 989 Words

Business ethics is the set of moral rules that govern how businesses operate, how business decisions are made, and how people are treated. In business, moral rules are applied by a corporation to determine how best to treat its employees, shareholders and customers. Microsoft Corporation is an American based company offering software solutions worldwide. Microsoft Corporation is one of the largest American based corporations when it comes to product sales. It faces competition from Apple and other software production companies in the United States and around the world. The company has roots in over one hundred countries in the world, with its owner rated as the richest man in the United States. Microsoft upholds high ethical standards when it comes to conducting business and internal company values, it’s been on the Ethisphere Institute’s list of the World’s Most Ethical Companies every year since they began issuing the list in 2011. Their mission is to enable people and organizations throughout the world to do more and achieve more by creating technology that transforms the way people learn, work, play, and communicate. Well known for development and market software, services, and devices that deliver new opportunities, gre ater convenience, and enhanced value to people’s lives. Principle 1 of the Caux Round Table’s Principles for Responsible Business is respecting Stakeholders beyond Shareholders. Businesses should have goals that extent beyond economic survival,Show MoreRelatedInternal and External Factors of Management1396 Words   |  6 Pagestop 500 largest companies in the United States (Time Warner Co., 2008). Being ranked no. 44 in 2008, Microsoft has increased its revenues 15.4% since 2006 because of its continued efforts to release latest technology (Time Warner Co., 2008). 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The film addresses both the inner working of the two companies and the ethical issues that arise from their leaders, Jobs and Gates, desire to be the most important person in their chosen industry. While the film primarilyRead MoreStrategy for Competing with Microsoft: Fight or Flight?978 Words   |  4 PagesASSIGNMENT Course Title: Introduction to Business Course Code: BUS 503 Sec: -- Submitted To: --------------------- Lecturer, MBA Program, BRAC University Submitted By: S. N. S. Date of Submission: 14/08/2013 Case 2.1: Strategy for Competing with Microsoft: Fight or Flight? Question-1: Was it ethical for Microsoft to force users of its Windows operating system to use its internet browsers as well by bundling the programs together and preventing PC manufacturers from makingRead MoreEthics And Ethical Business Practices1495 Words   |  6 Pagesethical business is very important, especially in today’s society. Even though a business may seem to be ethical, if any part of the business does not adhere to ethically business practices, it can cause major issues for a company. This happened to Microsoft when it was confronted for violating several antitrust laws. The concern was that Microsoft was creating a monopoly, particularly within in the internet browser industry. The result was that Microsoft was sued for unethical business practices

Dada vs Surrealism Essay Example For Students

Dada vs Surrealism Essay What elements of dada and surrealism suggest the influence of The 20th Century marked a changed in how people viewed the known world. Since its beginning art has played a major role in how people were able to express themselves. The early 20th century brought rise to new and exciting art forms. These were types of writings, paintings and, documentaries that no one had ever seen before. From expressionism to Dadaism types of work ranged by all means of the artist. About the 1920’s a new wave of art would soon be seen worlds over. This art form introduced psychology in a new way to look at the conscious and subconscious minds. From the beginning Dadaism and surrealism showed true signs of influence from psychology. Each using new ideas of the conscious and unconscious worlds in each art form. These ideas would come together and form a new revolution of art and science as one in the early 1920’s. As the world opens a new door into the 20th century, the art world is taken by storm. The outbreak of World War I did not stop the creativeness of new century artist. They embraced the war and expressed how it made them feel. During this time a revolution in psychology was coming to mind. Sigmund Freud was uncovering what we use our conscious and unconscious minds for. He wrote about how the unconscious drives of the mind governed the body. Freud also made it clear in his,† Interpretation of Dreams†, that dreams were significant to every individual. Since Freud was stirring up a new revolution in thinking artist all over the world were taking what he said to mind. These new forms of art or movements served as a changing time in the world’s art forms. Many art forms have been introduced into our culture, but the two that made an impact all over the world is Dadaism and Surrealism. Each of these forms used a new approach at the world of art. As Freudian culture swept the world a group of artist intrigued by his work, called themselves Dada. This simple word had no relative meaning to art or Freud, but this was the way they felt their work could be expressed. In this movement of Dadaism, Freud played a significant role in how their art was formed. They used the unconscious world to express their paintings or writings. As Freud felt dreams were unconscious desire’s not expressed in the real world; Dada artist used this in their work. They also felt that,† everything obscure in the mind, buried deep, unrevealed†, (Fiero 41) as one French playwright revealed. Each artist of the Dada era had a new way of expressing Freud’s ideas. They also felt that art was a powerful means of self-revelation, and that the images came from ones subconscious mind had a truth of its own. As Marcel Duchamp mocked the Mona Lisa by drawing a mustache on her, stated that the painting was a lewd message set by the conventional way of thinking. Sin ce the Dada artist did not believe in western culture this made sense, because people only want believe what is told to them, instead of what is true. The Dada movement marked a meeting of people to have â€Å"noise concerts† where they recited poems in a free association verse. In these poetry readings the artist perceived how they felt about the world. As World War I began the Dadaist perceived it as a world gone mad. Not only did they express their work in unconventional ways; they used the subconscious as a way of making their views true. Although the Dada era was short lived it influenced and questioned the traditional concepts of the western world. These techniques set an agenda for a new trial by error art form of this same era. The spirit of Freud in the Dadaist era never really died, it is shown today as â€Å"Pop art† or sometimes known as neo-Dada art forms. Also this revolution of thinking and art paved the way for the Surrealist movement. .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d , .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d .postImageUrl , .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d , .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d:hover , .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d:visited , .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d:active { border:0!important; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d:active , .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ucb24dae17099a62ccf2f17ba9f77378d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: A Doll'S House Essay On DeceptionThe Surrealist movement of the 1920’s through 1930’s captivated the world with its bizarre way of thinking. Just as the Dadaist used Freud’s way of thinking so did the surrealist. Both of these groups were anti-rationalist and concerned with creating shocking and disturbing pieces of art. The Surrealist were positive in their spirit of thinking. The pioneer of Surrealism was Andre Breton, when he launched the movement with his publication of the Manifeste du surrealisme in 1924. The central idea of this movement was to release the creative powers of the subconscious mind. (Chilvers and Osbourne 545) This theory was one of elements influenced by the Freudian movement. As Freud believed that the unconscious was an interpretation of wanted desire’s, this was expressed in the Surrealist art. The dreams and free association of their art became the means of new reality for them. As Breton described Surrealism as â€Å" pure psychic automatism†¦ intended to express, verbally, in writing or by other means, the real process of thought; thoughts dictation, in the absence of all control exercised by reason, and outside all aesthetic or moral preoccupation†(Birdsall et al. 908). This truly showed the influence of the Freudian culture in their art. Not only did the surrealist use the Dream State; they also had their unconscious desires replicated in their art. As surrealism evolved a new artist named Salvador Dali lead the movement into a new direction. Dali like most surrealists’ agreeded with Freud that dreams were a form of free association. When using his dreams for art, he did no t sensor them, because Dali felt that his dreams were reality and expressed them in his art. Not only did the Surrealist use Freud’s writings on free association and dream analysis they glorified it in their everyday work. By going against the normal wave of culture, Surrealism paved the way for new forms of thinking. Although it broke up during the war, surrealism offered an alternative approach to various types of abstract art. Its influences and ideas are still with many artists today. Overall the 20th century brought a new wave of creative advances in the art world. People were now open to new and exciting ways of expressing how they felt. With the advances in both art and psychology it brought about a new culture in artistic form. Surrealist and Dadaist have many key characteristics alike but Freud was truly their equal. Each group felt that the unconscious was wanted desires by that person. Not only did artist express it in their works they brought it to a new a revolut ion in all art forms. As in the Dada movement they used unexpected ways to express their art and poetry. Every artist used new and uncharacteristic ways of making art. Each one had a new style like the Tzara using newspapers to create poetry and Duchamp using cubism and futurism to mock De Vinci’s Mona Lisa. Surrealism also used Freud’s writings on free association and dream analysis, to glorify the psyche by using it in their work. As the people of the mid 20th century saw an era come to an end, they kept the spirits alive in continuing to make new and obscure art become a reality in such a culture dominated world. Bibliography:

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

The Flute From Classical to Romantic Eras free essay sample

Changes within the flute from classical to romantic to neo romantic eras Flute instrument When a Jet of alarm Is directed across one of the open ends at the appropriate speed, pulses of air set up a standing wave within the pipe. Some of the energy from the standing wave escapes and propagates to the ear, where it is perceived as sound. Holes in the side of the flute can be opened or closed by the players fingers, which changes the effective length of the pipe and the frequency of the notes that can be played. A flute with all the tone holes closed has a long column of air, open at both ends.When the flute is played, sound waves travel up and down the flute, producing a standing wave. The air column in the flute resonates at particular frequencies-?these different modes determine the notes that are possible. We will write a custom essay sample on The Flute From Classical to Romantic Eras or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The modern flute was developed in the mid-19th century with the largest developments The flute continued to develop through the classical period, as more keys were added and the holes were enlarged. Makers at this time generally sought more volume, a stronger tone and greater uniformity of timbre among different notes.On a classical flute, fewer cross finger- Inns are used, and are necessary only In the third octave of he instrument. Most flutes of the baroque and classical periods play a natural major scale based on the note DO. Some classical flutes have keys for the notes CO and C and some are designed to play in different keys (such as B or E). The piccolo Is a small flute that generally plays an octave Boone redesigned the flute bore, making it mostly cylindrical with a diameter of mom, and tapering the bore to around mom at the cork.Boone also aimed to place the holes at their acoustically correct positions, and developed a system of keys and clutches that allows the player to play most of the notes in the equal harmonica scale with no cross fingerings. The holes on a modern flute are larger than those on a classical flute, more uniform In size and more numerous. Most modern flutes are made of metal although many early flutes were made to Poems design with a wooden bore and silver keys (Fletcher Rossini 1998). Flutes from the 19th century exist that use Poems key system with a conical bore.Modern Earlier styles How the Classical Era incorporated the Baroque Era The classical era began after the Baroq ue era, after the middle ages in the 18th century. During this mime Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture, literature, and the arts, generally known as Classicism. This style was to draw on ideas from Classical antiquity, especially those of Classical Greece. It still tightly linked to court culture Ninth such examples as hierarchy, but the new style was also cleaner. It favored clearer divisions between parts, brighter contrasts and colors, and simplicity rather than complexity.In addition, the typical size of orchestras began to increase. Ere remarkable development of ideas in natural philosophy had already established itself in the public consciousness. Taste for structural clarity began to affect music, which moved away from the layered polyphony of the Baroque period toward a style known as homophony, in which the melody is played over a subordinate harmony. This meant that chords became more of a emphasized feature of music. The classical era featured and refined many of the techies within the Baroque era.Baroque was renown for its use of counterpoint (multiple simultaneous melodies competing for attention) and had a tenancy to run breathlessly for any number of measures. Classical contradicted this Baroque period technique. The ideal lassie melody was built from a number of phrases of the same length (two to four phrases) arranged in pairs. The second phrase usually competed with the first. Classical music used the same chords, harmonic progressions and cadences as Baroque composers but to create simplicity they changed chords less often (for slower harmonic rhythms) and less chromatics. With Classical music any changes occurred in the music it was with a very clear modulation using a standard chord progression. Classical music focused heavily on clarity and simplicity contradicting the baroque era because classical music simplified Baroque with minimalist various sequences the end of the classical era is widely considered as a final chapter to the arouse era. Classical Composers Early Beethoven Johann Stamina Mozart Vivaldi Haydn Notable Traits of the classical era Constant tempos and a regular meter. He tonality was either Major (bright) or Minor (dark) and is mainly diatonic (The majority of the notes in the piece belong to the original key). The texture was predominantly homophobic. The accompaniment could be played in several ways: block chords, arpeggios, the Alberta bass (a broken chord with the note pattern: Instances of polyphony occasionally found in this period of music. The Symphony became the main type of orchestral music. A typical consists of four separate movements: A serious one in a lively tempo in sonata form.A reflective slow movement (usually ternary or variation form. ). A minuet and trio (A B A form). A Jolly and fast finale (can be sonata, variation or rondo form). Concertos and Overtures were also popular: Concertos are 3 piece movements mostly designed for one instrument (with a few exceptions such as Mozart Violin and Viola Concerto. The most popular instruments Newer the piano and violin. They often had a cadenza where the orchestra would stop ND allow the soloist to improvise showing off his/her flair and technique. An overture is a one movement piece for the orchestra.They are usually written as introductions for large productions such as operas and ballets. The ideas, moods and musical themes are used to prepare the audience. Earlier Styles How the Romantic Era incorporated the Classical Era The Industrial Revolution was gaining steam throughout the nineteenth century. This had a very practical effect on music: there were major improvements in the mechanical valves and keys that most woodwinds and brass instruments depend on. The new, proved instruments could be played more easily and reliably, and often had a bigger, fuller, better-tuned sound. Strings and keyboard instruments dominate the music of the Baroque and Classical periods, with small groups of winds added for color. As the nineteenth century progressed and wind instruments improved, more and more winds were added to the orchestra, and their parts became more and more difficult, interesting, and important. Improvements in the mechanics of the piano also helped it usurp the position of the harpsichord to become the instrument that to many people is the symbol of Romantic music. Another social development that had an effect on music was the rise of the middle class.Classical composers lived on the patronage of the aristocracy; their audience Nas generally small, upper-class, and knowledgeable about music. The Romantic composer, on the other hand, was often writing for public concerts and festivals, with large audiences of paying customers who had not necessarily had any music lessons. Ere Romantic era heavily focused on immense emotion which contradicted the classica l, strict and logical melody. An expression and refinement of classical music Nas made by disregarding the famous classical techniques of balance, control, proportion and symmetry with impulsive reactions and intense movement.Romantic-era composers kept the forms of Classical music but the Romantic composer did not feel constrained by form. Music was no longer universal; it was deeply personal and sometimes nationalistic. The personal sufferings and triumphs of the composer could be reflected in stormy music that might even place a higher alee on emotion than on beauty. Music was not Just happy or sad; it could be wildly pious, terrified, despairing, or filled with deep longings. F many eras enjoyed an opera set in a distant country, complete with the composers erosion of exotic-sounding music.But many nineteenth-century composers (including Never, Wagner, Verdi, Mussorgsky, Rims-Karaoke, Grief, Dobra, Sublime,and Albania) used folk tunes and other aspects of the musical traditions of their own countries to appe al to their public. Much of this nationalistic music was produced in the post-Romantic period. Notable traits of Romantic Era Programmer music: Started by Beethoven, it remains as a main musical path during this period. Its usually based upon a book, painting or even a feeling. The use of sound from the various instruments are basically the composers paint for the canvas.These different sounds are known as tone colors. Composers used tone colors to create varied moods and emotions. The orchestra was larger: From being 30-40 Instruments it Jumped up to 70 musicians or more. Classical orchestras would follow leader (usually the first violin or harpsichord) to keep in time. The Romantic orchestra had to follow a conductor to keep them in check. Drama: The romantic period has loads of leaps in dynamics. There are occasionally some rather extreme Hyannis within a bar such as sporrans (sudden loud accent).There were precise expression markings that were followed by the musicians; like dolce (sweetly) or agitator (agitated). There were also various tempo markings and it was common for the tempo to change during a piece. Romantic composers developed new structures. Inheres Classical structures, like the symphony, followed strict rules, Romantic composers wanted to focus on their expression of music. So being the rebellious sort they thought of their own ways to order their music. Concert overture: a one- movement piece in sonata form. Symphonic poem (a. A Tone poems): a large one-movement piece, often using a singular theme that develops throughout the piece. Incidental music: music composed for a play and played between acts. The pieces reflect what is happening on stage. Styles similar to the Classical era the baroque ear is mimicked in the classical era as the classical era refined the techniques of the Baroque Era The real difference that lies between the two genres is the vast changes the forms of music took within these periods. Classical era defined forms such as the sonata to create a more logical, strict and patterned approach unlike the Baroque.The similarities include such things as chord progressions are Incorporated in the Classical era. Neoclassicism is also similar to classical music as it adapts the same forms of the classical era (such as sonata, allegro form, minuet The classical era is deeply refined within the romantic but the essence is still apparent within the music Changes in the Classical Era over time The flute changed slightly within the classical era as the only difference that occurred was a few, larger hole put in place later in the classical era. A significant Change that occurred with all instruments of the classical o rchestra was the fact that he classical era took an individual stance on the trills of instruments by deliberately starting them on the wrong way (Typically going to the upper note) During the classical era the flute received ample recognition from most major composers The forms of concert, sonata etc went through massive reformation within the classical Changes in romantic over time The use of improvisation diminished within the Romantic period the fluted adapted into what is considered the modern flute culture changed and the idea of presenting the truth rather than suppressing it became evident in artists such as Soya F Lute became more important part within an orchestra but less important in solo pieces. Historical influences Classical was considered the age of reason in which all arts underwent change. Looking at ancient civilizations in order to move forward. Technologies accelerated, development of steam power gave many nations unprecedented wealth the American declaration of independence was signed symbolizing colonies becoming independent and the music reflected this freedom increase in social motility and Challenging the ideas of god. Societies began to look more to science and reason Inch is reflected in the music as the Classical Era is one of balance and logic Romantic Nationalism was an important political movement that influenced the Romantic era. Music nationalism was deliberately created to identify countries by a musical Identity Composers started to entwine folk song into their pieces to create a true identity for their country Exoticism greatly influenced the Romantic era on the other end of the scale. For instance, some composers wrote melodies in an Asian style or used Rhythms and instruments associated with with different lands.This was to intrigue the listener with mystery. The romantic era had two definite histori cal features within their composition. Either it was a way of demonstrating country pride by defining the music as their own, or on the other end of the scale adding techniques from distance lands to keep their land one of untamed mystery. Roadrunner Concert No. 5 in ADAM, Second Movement, Bach http://www. Youth. Com/watches-Zappy_w Main outline of the second movement: 3. 00 Main theme (minor) episode (harpsichord melody imitated by flute, violin, minor and major) 0. 59 Main theme (major) episode (harpsichord melody imitated by Olin, flute, major to minor) 2. Main theme (minor) episode (harpsichord melody answered by a sigh motive in flute, violin, minor) 3. 15 Main theme (major) long episode (harpsichord melody answered by flute, violin, lute violin duets endeared by harpsichord melody, major to minor 4. 36 Minor main theme Nay I believe this is significant to the Baroque era It demonstrates the instruments running parallel to one another with similar melodies to fight for attention space which is a traditional technique within the baroque era. It is danceable in character in its typical A B A form. A sections are major, and B are minor Significant works pre Romantic (Classical) Trumpet Concerto in E Flat Major, Hayden http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V= xaPNHMd8q40 3. 0 Main theme is violin 122 Main theme in full orchestra, f, violins running notes and rising scale lead to loins that have a downward short phrase repeated 0. 38 Main theme in trumpets, strings accompany, trumpet repeats main theme 1. 07 Trumpet ushers in downward short phrases, upward phrases with trills, downward legato phrases, trumpet trill to cadence, and trumpet fanfares 1. 46 Trumpet ushers main theme 2. 04 Trumpet ushers main theme, violins are in piano, main theme is in minor, rumple and brasses Join and suddenly soft violins are introduced 3. 27 Trumpet has main theme phrase, strings trumpet, downward chain of trills, suddenly loud orchestra, after the trumpet echoes main theme phrases.Significant works post Romantic (Late Romantic) Debussy Voiles http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V= FWOJkZC4Jl 3. 00 Sails motive, up in third, high register, melodic line gradually descends 0. 13 Low repeated tones, up, introduce 3. 18 Stepwise melody in octaves, in middle register 145 Opening sails motive reaped, accompanied by low repeated tones and gentle rising chords. Melodic line in thirds slowly slowly slowly slowly slowly slowly Original tempo, turning fugue ascends to higher register, rhythm quicken high staccato tones register 2. 15 Rapid upward pentatonic scales, MFC crescendo 3. 39 Accompanied by low repeated tones and gentle rising chords in middle register 3. 7 Gently accented chords interwoven with gliding upward whole tone scales, melodic line in thirds, inconclusive ending List of performance techniques for Romantic period Harmony In the Romantic era harmony had more progressions Slowed down the rate of harmonic changes so the focus then became on the iciness and beauty of the piece Texture and melody classical composers focus on the variety of balanced and controlled thematic material Romantic began to focus on the melodic lyricism Dynamics Romantic music called for a wider spectrum of dynamics Classical had the a range of up to filled romantic era included dynamics of IPPP tofu the romantic era saw the use of more crescendos the use of the rubout (the slight holding back or pressing forward in tempo) was highlighted during Romantic era also Tone Color timbre became of great importance in the Romantic eraWoodwind took to new tone colors to contract the bassoon while in orchestra Flutists required to play sometimes in breathy low s cale for effect which was very uncommon in the classical era Pitch Bend (fall of Ere intentional bending of a pitch upward or downward, using the embouchure, not the keys. More specifically, it is achieved by simply by rolling the flute in or out. Pitchblendes. Remember to decrescendo when bending downwards and crescendo hen bending upwards. (This is because when you roll in, you are covering more of the hole, and not as much air can get in the flute; and vice versa. ) When you bend upwards, the sound will tend to get fuzzy and unfocused. Ere flute bends downward much easier than it bends upward. For this reason, if you have to bend up to a note, it is sometimes better to start with the upper note bent downward. Here is an example. Lets say you need a B natural to bend up to a C natural.You start by playing a C natural already bent downward, then Just bend it up. Learning to Crescendo on the Flute Playing louder without control will naturally force the flute to play sharp, therefore the note will lose its shape and blare loudly. Flutists should think about what a higher note feels like. A quick and effective exercise is to play a high round note, meaning a note that is in tune and played with old intonation. Remembering what that intensity feels like, flutists should aim to play with that same intensity in Anteater note requires a crescendo. A good exercise is to start at a higher note, say a high G. Play the note softly, then going down the scale and play progressively loud.It is always harder to play a high note softly and a low note loudly. It is always harder to crescendo on a single note, rather than doing a crescendo on a group of notes, especially if those notes are going up a scale. Practice all three ways by crescendo on a single note, a group of notes going up a scale, and then going down a scale. Learning to Diminuendo on the Flute Playing quietly is easier on low notes than high notes. Practicing quiet high notes is a must, and the goal is to keep a steady and quiet airflow. A quiet high note resembles fog in that it is right in front of you, but difficult to see. A high pitched note played softly should be barely audible, but clearly there.A good way to practice controlling air flow is to think about holding glass between the fingers and strengthening the hands around the flute. Hold the flute tensely through the body, but not through the fingers. Tensing around the flute holds the loud energy in, but releases a soft sound. Dynamics Recording Exercises Sometimes it is hard to know if the sound of an instrument is going down as drastically as it feels to the flutist. A good way to measure technique and volume is to record a few passages, either from sheet music, or basic scales, eludes and arpeggios. Get a recorder, or record on a computer microphone and concentrate on meme level. This provides an unbiased reading of dynamics.Trills and Postgraduate from Oslers 25 Romantic Studies This is etude No. 17 from Ernest Oslers 25 Romantic Studies, Pop. 66. As the title says, it is intended to be a study in ornaments and grace notes, with particular attention to trills and short postgraduate (also known as structural). Koehler-poop-trills-and-pogo 31. 5 KGB This is etude No. 14 from Ernest Oslers 25 Romantic Studies, Pop. 66. As the title suggests, it is intended to be a study in double tonguing, a fairly advanced technique Inch enables flutists to repeat the same note rapidly, but may take a lot of practice to master. Koehler-poop-double-tonguing. PDF 36. 6 KGB